Monday, May 25, 2020

Domestication History of Rye

Rye (Secale cereale subspecies cereale) was likely fully domesticated from its weedy relative (S. cereale ssp segetale) or perhaps S. vavilovii, in Anatolia or the Euphrates River valley of what is today Syria, at least as early as 6600 BC, and perhaps as early as 10,000 years ago. Evidence for domestication is at Natufian sites such as Can Hasan III in Turkey at 6600 cal BC (calendar years BC); domesticated rye reached central Europe (Poland and Romania) about 4,500 cal BC. Today rye is grown on about 6 million hectares in Europe where it is mostly used for making bread, as animal feed and forage, and in the production of rye and vodka. Prehistorically rye was used for food in a variety of ways, as animal fodder and for straw for the thatched rooves. Characteristics Rye is a member of the Triticeae tribe of Pooideae subfamily of the Poaceae grasses, meaning it is closely related to wheat and barley. There are around 14 different species of the Secale genus, but only S. cereale is domesticated. Rye is allogamous: its reproductive strategies promote outcrossing. Compared to wheat and barley, rye is relatively tolerant to frost, drought, and marginal soil fertility. It has an enormous genome size (~8,100 Mb), and its resistance to frost stress appears to be a result of the high genetic diversity among and within rye populations. The domestic forms of rye have larger seeds than wild forms as well as a non-shattering rachis (the part of the stem that holds the seeds onto the plant). Wild rye is free-threshing, with a tough rachis and loose chaff: a farmer can free the grains by a single threshing since straw and chaff are eliminated by a single round of winnowing. Domestic rye maintained the free-threshing characteristic and both forms of rye are vulnerable to ergot and to munching by pesky rodents while still ripening. Experimenting with Rye Cultivation There is some evidence that Pre-Pottery Neolithic (or Epi-Paleolithic) hunters and gatherers living in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria cultivated wild rye during the cool, arid centuries of the Younger Dryas, some 11,000-12,000 years ago. Several sites in northern Syria show that increased levels of rye were present during the Younger Dryas, implying that the plant must have been specifically cultivated to survive. Evidence discovered at Abu Hureyra (~10,000 cal BC), TellAbr (9500-9200 cal BC), Mureybet 3 (also spelled Murehibit, 9500-9200 cal BC), Jerf el Ahmar (9500-9000 cal BC), and Djade (9000-8300 cal BC) includes the presence of multiple querns (grain mortars) placed in food processing stations and charred wild rye, barley, and einkorn wheat grains. In several of these sites, rye was the dominant grain. Ryes advantages over wheat and barley are its ease of threshing in the wild stage; it is less glassy than wheat and can be more easily prepared as food (roasting, grinding, boiling and mashing). Rye starch is hydrolyzed to sugars more slowly and it produces a lower insulin response than wheat, and is, therefore, more sustaining than wheat. Weediness Recently, scholars have discovered that rye, more than other domesticated crops has followed a weedy species type of domestication process--from wild to weed to crop and then back to weed again. Weedy rye (S. cereale ssp segetale) is distinctive from the crop form in that it includes stem shattering, smaller seeds and a delay in flowering time. It has been found to have spontaneously redeveloped itself out of the domesticated version in California, in as few as 60 generations. Sources This article is part of the guide to Plant Domestication, and part of the Dictionary of Archaeology Hillman G, Hedges R, Moore A, Colledge S, and Pettitt P. 2001. New evidence of Late Glacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. The Holocene 11(4):383-393. Li Y, Haseneyer G, Schà ¶n C-C, Ankerst D, Korzun V, Wilde P, and Bauer E. 2011. High levels of nucleotide diversity and fast decline of linkage disequilibrium in rye (Secale cerealeL.) genes involved in frost response. BMC Plant Biology 11(1):1-14. (Springer link is currently not working) Marques A, Banaei-Moghaddam AM, Klemme S, Blattner FR, Niwa K, Guerra M, and Houben A. 2013. B chromosomes of rye are highly conserved and accompanied the development of early agriculture. Annals of Botany 112(3):527-534. Martis MM, Zhou R, Haseneyer G, Schmutzer T, Vrà ¡na J, Kubalà ¡kovà ¡ M, Kà ¶nig S, Kugler KG, Scholz U, Hackauf B et al. 2013. Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome. The Plant Cell 25:3685-3698. Salamini F, Ozkan H, Brandolini A, Schafer-Pregl R, and Martin W. 2002. Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the near east. Nature Reviews Genetics 3(6):429-441.   Shang H-Y, Wei Y-M, Wang X-R, and Zheng Y-L. 2006. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the rye genus Secale L. (rye) based on Secale cereale microsatellite markers. Genetics and Molecular Biology 29:685-691. Tsartsidou G, Lev-Yadun S, Efstratiou N, and Weiner S. 2008. Ethnoarchaeological study of phytolith assemblages from an agro-pastoral village in Northern Greece (Sarakini): development and application of a Phytolith Difference Index. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(3):600-613. Vigueira CC, Olsen KM, and Caicedo AL. 2013. The red queen in the corn: agricultural weeds as models of rapid adaptive evolution. Heredity 110(4):303-311.   Willcox G. 2005. The distribution, natural habitats, and availability of wild cereals in relation to their domestication in the Near East: multiple events, multiple centres. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 14(4):534-541. (Springer link not working) Willcox G, and Stordeur D. 2012. Large-scale cereal processing before domestication during the 10th millennium Cal BC in northern Syria. Antiquity 86(331):99-114.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

SB2C Helldiver - Curtiss SB2C Helldiver

SB2C Helldiver - Specifications: General Length: 36 ft. 9 in. Wingspan: 49 ft. 9 in. Height: 14 ft. 9 in. Wing Area: 422 sq. ft. Empty Weight: 10,114 lbs. Loaded Weight: 13,674 lbs. Crew: 2 Number Built: 7,140 Performance Power Plant: 1 Ãâ€" Wright R-2600 radial engine, 1,900 hp Range: 1,200 miles Max Speed: 294 mph Ceiling: 25,000 ft Armament Guns: 2 Ãâ€" 20 mm (.79 in) cannon in the wings, 2 Ãâ€" 0.30 in M1919 Browning machine guns in rear cockpit Bombs/Torpedo: Internal bay - 2,000 lbs. of bombs or 1 Mark 13 torpedo, Underwing Hard Points - 2 x 500 lb. bombs SB2C Helldiver - Design Development: In 1938, the US Navys Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) circulated a request for proposals for a for a next-generation dive bomber to replace the new SBD Dauntless. Though the SBD had yet to enter service, BuAer sought an aircraft with greater speed, range, and payload. In addition, it was to be powered by the new Wright R-2600 Cyclone engine, possess an internal bomb bay, and be of a size that two of the aircraft could fit on a carriers elevator. While six companies submitted entries, BuAer selected Curtiss design as the winner in May 1939. Designated the SB2C Helldiver, the design immediately began showing problems. Early wind tunnel testing in February 1940 found the SB2C to have an excessive stall speed and poor longitudinal stability. While efforts to fix the stall speed included increasing the size of the wings, the latter issue presented greater problems and was a result of BuAers request that two aircraft be able to fit on an elevator. This limited the length of the aircraft despite the fact it was to have more power and a greater internal volume than its predecessor. The result of these increases, without an increase in length, was instability. As the aircraft could not be lengthened, the only solution was to enlarge its vertical tail, which was done twice during development. One prototype was constructed and first flew on December 18, 1940. Built in a conventional fashion, the aircraft possessed a semi-monocoque fuselage and two-spar, four-section wings. The initial armament consisted of two .50 cal. machine guns mounted in the cowling as well as one in each wing. This was supplemented by twin .30 cal. machine guns on a flexible mounting for the radio operator. The internal bomb bay could carry a single 1,000 lb. bomb, two 500 lb. bombs, or a torpedo. SB2C Helldiver - Problems Persist: Following the initial flight, problems remained with the design as bugs were found in the Cyclone engines and the SB2C showed instability at high speed. After a crash in February, flight testing continued through the fall until December 21 when the right wing and stabilizer gave out during a dive test. The crash effectively grounded the type for six months as the problems were addressed and the first production aircraft built. When the first SB2C-1 flew on June 30, 1942, it incorporated a variety of changes which increased its weight by nearly 3,000 lbs. and reduced its speed by 40 mph. SB2C Helldiver - Production Nightmares: Though unhappy with this drop in performance, BuAer was too committed to the program to pull out and was forced to push ahead. This was partly due to an earlier insistence that the aircraft be mass-produced to anticipate wartime needs. As a result, Curtiss had received orders for 4,000 aircraft before the first production type flew. With the first production aircraft emerging from their Columbus, OH plant, Curtiss found a series of problems with the SB2C. These generated so many fixes that a second assembly line was built to immediately modify newly built aircraft to the latest standard. Moving through three modification schemes, Curtiss was not able to incorporate all of the changes into the main assembly line until 600 SB2Cs were built. In addition to the fixes, other alterations to the SB2C series included the removal of the .50 machine guns in the wings (the cowl guns had been removed earlier) and replacing them with 20mm cannon. Production of the -1 series ended in spring 1944 with the switch to the -3. The Helldiver was built in variants through -5 with key changes being the use of a more powerful engine, four-bladed propeller, and the addition of wing racks for eight 5 in. rockets. SB2C Helldiver - Operational History: The reputation of the SB2C was well known before the type began arriving in late 1943. As a result, many front-line units actively resisted giving up their SBDs for the new aircraft. Due to its reputation and appearance, the Helldiver quickly earned the nicknames Son of a Bitch 2nd Class, Big-Tailed Beast, and just Beast. Among the issues put forward by crews in regard to the SB2C-1 was that it was underpowered, poorly built, possessed a faulty electrical system, and required extensive maintenance. First deployed with VB-17 aboard USS Bunker Hill, the type entered combat on November 11, 1943 during raids on Rabaul. It was not until spring 1944 that the Helldiver began to arrive in larger numbers. Seeing combat during the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the type had a mixed showing as many were forced to ditch during the long return flight after dark. Despite this loss of aircraft, it sped the arrival of improved SB2C-3s. Becoming the US Navys principal dive bomber, the SB2C saw action during the remainder of the conflicts battles in the Pacific including Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. Helldivers also took part in attacks on the Japanese mainland. As later variants of the aircraft improved, many pilots came to have a grudging respect for the SB2C citing its ability to sustain heavy damage and remain aloft, its large payload, and longer range. Despite its early problems, the SB2C proved an effective combat aircraft and may have been the best dive bomber flown by the US Navy. The type was also the last designed for the US Navy as actions late in the war increasingly showed that fighters equipped with bombs and rockets were as effective as dedicated dive bombers and did not require air superiority. In the years after World War II, the Helldiver was retained as the US Navys prime attack aircraft and inherited the torpedo bombing role previously filled by the Grumman TBF Avenger. The type continued to fly until it was finally replaced by the Douglas A-1 Skyraider in 1949. SB2C Helldiver - Other Users: Watching the success of the German Junkers Ju 87 Stuka during the early days of World War II, the US Army Air Corps began looking for a dive bomber. Rather than seek a new design, the USAAC turned to existing types then in use with the US Navy. Ordering a quantity of SBDs under the designation A-24 Banshee, they also made plans to purchase a large number of modified SB2C-1s under the name A-25 Shrike. Between late 1942 and early 1944 900 Shrikes were built. Having re-assessed their needs based on combat in Europe, the US Army Air Forces found these aircraft were not needed and turned many back to the US Marine Corps while some were retained for secondary roles. The Helldiver was also flown by the Royal Navy, France, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Australia, and Thailand. French and Thai SB2Cs saw action against the Viet Minh during the First Indochina War while Greek Helldivers were used to attack Communist insurgents in the late 1940s. The last nation to use the aircraft was Italy which retired their Helldivers in 1959. Selected Sources Ace Pilot: SB2C HelldiverMilitary Factory: SB2C Helldiver Warbird Alley: SB2C Helldiver

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Review on Cat in the Rain - 882 Words

Review on Cat in The Rain of Ernest Hemingway A couple of Americans traveled in Italy. At the hotel, on a raining day, the wife found a cat crouched in the rain and wanted to take the cat and possess it. She went out and searched the cat in the rain, to find it had gone. Coming back, she told her husband her wish to change her hair style and was turned down by her husband. After her several other wishes were also turned down, a waitress of the hotel knocked the door, at the demand of the hotel owner, and sent her a cat. These are the main plots of Hemingway’s novel, Cat in The Rain. Main characters in the story are the American wife and her husband. Hemingway’s purpose of writing this novel is to illustrate the relationship between the†¦show more content†¦She is sent a big tortoise-shell cat. It doesn’t matter whether this cat is the cat in the rain several minutes ago. It’s just a symbol of change for the woman. It’s not enough for the wo man. It’s just a beginning. What she wants is not just a cat. She wants to change. Anyhow, it’s a good sign, too. Alsoï ¼Å'the using of words shows some attitudes, too. The different titles of the cat, like the kitty; and that of the woman, like the girl. These different addresses show the childish characteristics of the woman. This feature shows that her inferior statue comparing with her husband. All in all, the main problem of the story is their relationship: the husband controls all affairs, while the wife’s failure of trying to make a change. However, there is still a sign of change at the end of the story, which shows the author’s hope forShow MoreRelatedCat in the Rain - Woman the Inequality3717 Words   |  15 Pagessociety in the work â€Å"Cat in the rain†? (3) What in the work â€Å"Cat in the rain† can show the reader the inequality of rights of women? â€Æ' II. BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH A. 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The motor coordination of gross motor skills is impaired due to neurological functioning and sensory processing within the brain. The repetition and instruction during the movement of dance can be used to improve gross motor movements (Rain, 2014). †¢ Social: Individuals with autism often lack social skills. This intervention can help improve social interaction between clients and therapists in the group setting. †¢ Cognitive: Individuals with autism also experience cognitive deficiencies

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Power of Focus by Jack Canfield Essay Sample free essay sample

Every person has its ain dreams and ends in life. Each of them frequently thinks of something for this dream or end should come to go through ; such as reading. The Power of Focus by Jack Canfield teaches the reader some keys which is the concentrating schemes that has a possible to take one to success. The writer of this book divide these concentrating schemes into 10 logical countries. These are wonts. focal point. ends ( seeing the large image ) . balance. relationships. inquiring for what you want. continuity. assurance. decisive action. and purpose. At the terminal of each chapter theAction Stairsssubdivisions were rather effectual in prosecuting the reader in believing about the stuff every bit good as get downing to use this stuff to their ain life’s journey. Deductions: Harmonizing to the author’s position that successful people have successful wonts and unsuccessful people don’t. Taking this idea from the degree of single to organisation the same statement can be made for illustration ; successful organisations or companies have successful wonts and unsuccessful organisations don’t. We will write a custom essay sample on The Power of Focus by Jack Canfield Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the procedure of taking or pull offing for success. it makes enormous sense to reexamine one’s organisation to see whatwontsare working for illustration ; adding value to the procedure and whatwontsare non working. All excessively frequently organisations and people within an organisation autumn into accustomed behaviour. which is really non profiting either. the organisation or the clients ( stakeholders ) served by that organisation. Examples of these types of non-productive wonts such as long disorganised meetings. sloppy communications. deficiency of procedure subject. and failure to document quality cheques. Equally of import is the demand to reenforce good wonts both at the single degree and within groups. The most of import thing in this procedure is the demand to maintain in head the author’s warning that before you can alter a wont. you need to first look into how long you or the organisation have owned it. The author’s place that one should concentr ate on their natural endowments or strengths to assist see success. Mention hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bizsum. com/articles/art_the-power-of-focus. php

Friday, April 10, 2020

Mysteries Essays - Ghosts, Black Shuck, Humphrey Bogart, Free Essays

Mysteries There are many mysteries that question the mind, but none that can compare to the intrigue in the supernatural. Ghosts, goblins, poltergeists, Death Omens, curses, unexplainable phenomena, and hauntings; mysteries of the paranormal could go on and on. There are centuries of ghost stories and tales that have been passed down from generation to generation. From the Bermuda Triangle mysteries, phantoms of the ocean, ships, and glowing ghosts of little boys, to the curse of James' Deans' car, The Little Bastard and the Amityville Horror. A little background history of this bone-chilling horror may help one decide whether or not to believe in the existence of the beyond. Everywhere on earth and all through history, people have believed that there is more to the world than meets the eye. Behind the outward material appearance of things there is sensed something inward, immaterial, and probably invisible.(Cavendish 1) Apparitions of things have been seen all over the world. The definition of apparition, as given by Richard Cavendish, is the supernormal manifestation of people, animals, objects, and spirits. (Cavendish 25) In the ancient folklore of England and Europe, glowing ghosts of little boys who have been murdered by their mothers appear. This particular apparition portends ill luck and a violent death. The name radiant boys could have possibly originated in German folklore with the word kindermorderinn. However, there are numerous radiant boy stories in the Cumberland area of England. These boys seem to resemble a flame ; slightly orange with a glow about them. These ghosts have never been proved to have caused any ha! rm, they simply appear and disappear as mysteriously as they came. There has only been one claim that these radiant boys have attempted to cause harm or scare people. One account of the radiant boy apparition was in Knebworth, England when Edward Bulwer-Lytton stated that he had seen a strange glowing boy with long golden hair sitting in front of the fire. This boy then drew his finger and slid it across his throat three times. Later, however this story was proved to be false and just another attention-getting scheme by Edward Bulwer-Lytton.(Guiley 274) Another mind-boggling series of apparitions was the Legend of the Faceless Gray Man of Pawley's Island. The story has it that this faceless man appears just before hurricanes strike at Pawley's Island off the coast of South Carolina. In fact, this particular apparition has been credited with saving thousands of lives. Residents of the island believe him to be the ghost Percival Pawley who was the first to settle and name the island. Whatever the case may be, inhabitants of the island claim that this faceless phantom appeared just before the hurricanes of 1822, 1893, 1916, 1954, and 1955. (Guiley 115) A more recent ghost, and a female at that, was Resurrection Mary. Resurrection Mary is one of Chicago's most famous ghosts. This beautiful blonde, blue-eyed girl dressed in white has been reported in the Chicago environs since 1934, the year of her alleged death. Mary takes her name from Resurrection Cemetery where she is supposed to be buried. Her full name is unknown and her existence is unproved. According to legend Mary was killed one night in an automobile accident in 1934 after an evening of dancing at the Willowbrook Ballroom, formerly known as the O'Henry Ballroom. Her ghost was said to have begun making appearances in 1934. She would hitchhike, and request a ride to the O'Henry where she would dance the night away. After a fairytale evening of dancing, she would then request a ride home. She would give the driver vague instructions past Resurrection cemetery where she would mysteriously disappear. All of Mary's dance partners throughout the evening said tha! t she was quiet, aloof and with icy cold skin. The only evidence or proof of Resurrection Mary is old cemetery records of a Polish girl near Mary's age buried in that same cemetery. (Guiley 280) On different note, another type of supernatural mystery is the childhood fear of Bogart , or otherwise known as the Bogey Man. Believe it or not, there is actually belief of the bogey man in English folklore. The Bogart is abogey or type of hobgoblin that has habits like that of a poltergeist. Although at times the Bogart can be helpful and sociable with some people, but is most often mischievous, annoying and frightening. The Bogart is not a visible nuisance, but plays tricks on people, like pulling off their bedclothes. The Bogart hauntings are also accompanied by terrible noises or laughter. The Bogart is also known to be nasty and mean; these habits include scratching, punching and pinching, and even in some cases snatching people up and

Monday, March 9, 2020

Erida, The goddess of hate essays

Erida, The goddess of hate essays Erida is Hate. She is Strife and Discord. Unfortunately, there are many conflicting sources of information about this Greek Goddess of Hate. Most sources cite her as the twin sister of Ares; some sources say that she is the same as Eris, Goddess of Discord, while others state that Eris and Erida are two totally different goddesses. One source even said that Erida is the daughter of Eris. There is also the fact that the names Erida and Eris are uncannily similar. Besides that, there is the question whether Erida is actually in the book The Iliad by Homer, which is one of my main sources. The Goddess of Hate is not explicitly named in The Iliad as Erida but is rather referred to as Strife. So for purposes of this essay, I will assume that Erida is indeed the same goddess as Eris. Twin sister of the God of War, Erida was Ares constant companion. Eridas greatest joy was making trouble. In Book Five of The Iliad, Erida is described as Strife insatiable. Her anger is never satisfied. She possessed a golden apple so radiant that everyone wanted to have it. Erida would throw her golden apple among friends and foes alike. If she threw it among friends, their friendship quickly ended. If she threw it among enemies, war would break out. Essentially an action of Erida led to the Trojan War. Zeus was giving a wedding for Peleus, a young king of Thessaly, and Thetis, a beautiful Nereid. All the gods and goddesses were invited to the wedding except Erida. She was furious so she threw one of her golden apples of discord into the crowd of guests and shouted, The fairest of the goddesses shall have it! Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite rushed to pick it up, each thinking that they were the fairest of them all, and soon they began to argue with each other about who should have the apple. The wedding broke up and the goddesses went back to Olympus still in discord. ...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Security Issues Within Virtualization Coursework

Security Issues Within Virtualization - Coursework Example Citrix Systems, Inc. (2008, October). Citrix xenserver V5.0 and netapp storage best practices. Retrieved from CITRIX Web site: This article shows the best way to use NetApp storage systems and Citrix XenServer. It also speaks about the future of these methods in the furthering of virtualization. Although pushing their product, this article has good information. The great IT cost is reduced by the virtual desktop. The need to download extra software and patches are thing of the past according to this article. Since it was written in 2005, the author is full of promise for the virtual desktop, with no concern. This is important to show the attitude when the virtual desktop was new. This web site provides access to technology white papers and can provide me with an excellent source of information on the subject of virtualization. Most of the technology is being developed by well know vendors, having easy access to their technology white papers will help provide a reliable source for information. Ghodke, N. (2004). Virtualization techniques to enable transparent access to Peripheral devices across networks (Masters Thesis, University Of Florida, 2004). Retrieved from Many individuals get excited about virtualization without taking into account the security measures necessary to run virtualization without being hacked or interfered with by outside sources. This article informs about security measures needed. This article also speaks about security for virtualized environments. The authors did an empirical study into the security exposure to hosts of hostile virtualized environments. Their findings were very interesting and vital to my research. This article speaks about the unknown factors of virtualization. Mike Rothman believes that there are a number of potential